A nanometer is a unit of length measurement. One nanometer is equal to one billionth of a meter. Nanoparticles generally refer to particles with a particle size of 0.1-100mm. Nanoparticles show special properties in many aspects, such as optical properties, catalytic properties, chemical reactivity, magnetism, melting point, vapor pressure, phase transition temperature, superconductivity, and so on, which makes them of great value in the development and production of new functional clothing materials.
At present, nano functional materials and nanotechnology have become the research hotspot all over the world. Nanotechnology has penetrated into all fields of human life and production, making many traditional products improved. Nanotechnology has been applied to the development and production of functional clothing materials such as UV, diamagnetic radiation, far-infrared, antibacterial, odor-reducing, anti-aging, water repellent, and oil repellent.
Application of nanotechnology in textile
The application of nanotechnology to develop functional textiles is mainly realized in the following three ways:
(1) Fiber superfine
The application of nanotechnology makes the fiber reach the nanometer level to meet the needs of special application fields.
(2) Traditional materials are modified by nanomaterials.
For example, solution blending in wet spinning is to dissolve the polymer in an appropriate solvent, add nanomaterial particles into it, fully stir evenly, carry out polymerization, and then carry out spinning. In melt spinning, nanoparticles are evenly dispersed in molten polymers to prepare functional fibers.
(3) Nano finishing of fibers or fabrics to make them functional.
The main methods of nano finishing are as follows: the nanoparticles are directly added into the fabric finishing agent as a solid matter to make the nanoparticles evenly dispersed in the fabric; After mixing the microemulsion and fabric finishing agent, the fabric can be passed through the finishing solution containing nanoparticles. The finishing agent containing nanomaterials is coated on the fabric surface in the presence of a certain adhesive to form a functional coating, so as to improve the wearability of the fabric.
No matter which of the above methods is adopted, the characteristics of the original textile or clothing materials can be changed and new functions can be added. Some newly developed products have entered the field of daily consumption, such as water repellent cashmere windbreaker, antifouling tie, and trousers, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory underwear, jacket blocking ultraviolet line, etc.
Nanotechnology functional clothing materials
(1) UV resistant material
The ultraviolet rays harmful to the human body by solar energy are mainly in the band of 300 ~ 400mm. The research shows that nano TiO 2, ZnO, SiO 2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, and nano mica all have the characteristics of absorbing ultraviolet rays in this band. If a small number of nanoparticles are added to chemical fibers, ultraviolet absorption will occur, which can effectively protect the human body from ultraviolet damage.
(2) Antistatic material
Chemical fiber clothes and carpets produce discharge effects due to electrostatic friction and are easy to absorb dust, which brings a lot of inconvenience to users. Nanoparticles provide a new way to solve the electrostatic problem of chemical fiber products. Adding a small number of nanoparticles into chemical fiber products, such as 0.1% – 0.5% nano TiO 2, Cr 2 O3, ZnO, Fe2O3, and other semiconductor powders into the resin, will produce good electrostatic shielding performance and greatly reduce the electrostatic effect.
(3) Anti electromagnetic radiation material
The popularity of electronic products makes electromagnetic radiation a great threat to human health. Some nanoparticles such as nano iron oxide and nano nickel oxide can strongly absorb electromagnetic radiation, so as to protect the human body.
(4) Far infrared material
The infrared released by the human body is roughly in the mid-infrared band of 4 ~ 16. If the infrared in this band is not shielded on the battlefield, it is easy to be found by a very sensitive mid-infrared detector, especially at night. Human safety will be threatened. Therefore, it is necessary to develop clothes that can shield the infrared of the human body.
Some nanoparticles, such as the composite powders of nano AI2O3, TiO ν, SiO ν, and Fe2O3, are combined with polymer fibers and have strong absorption properties in the mid-infrared band. Another important feature is that some nanoparticles, such as nano zirconia, can effectively absorb external energy and radiate the same far-infrared as the human infrared. This far-infrared acts on the human body, that is, it produces the resonance activation of human cells. It has the functions of health care such as heat preservation and bacteriostasis, promoting blood circulation, and enhancing immunity.
(5) Antibacterial deodorizing material
Some metal particles, such as silver, copper, and iron, can release trace metal ions and combine with negatively charged bacterial proteins to deform or precipitate bacteria, so as to achieve the bactericidal effect. Nano zinc oxide and copper oxide not only have good antibacterial and deodorizing functions but also have a good ultraviolet shielding effect.
(6) anti-aging materials
Some chemical fibers are not resistant to the sun because organic polymer materials will degrade their molecular chains and produce a large number of free radicals under the irradiation of ultraviolet rays, which will affect the color and strength of fibers and textiles. Nano titanium dioxide particles are stable ultraviolet absorbers. They are evenly dispersed in polymer materials and use their absorption of ultraviolet rays, It can prevent the degradation of molecular chain, so as to achieve the effect of sun resistance and aging resistance.
(7) Water and oil repellent material
Carry out some special processing on the surface of the material to make the material have special functions. The textile materials treated by this technology (cotton, hemp, silk, wool, cashmere, blended, chemical fiber, etc.) are not only waterproof and oil proof, but also ink and fruit juice. When washing clothes made of this fiber, you can only wash them with clean water without using traditional detergents.