Common calculation formula for textile
The commonly used textile calculation formulas are divided into two types: the fixed length calculation formula and the fixed weight calculation formula
Calculation formula of fixed length system
(1) . denier (d) =g/l9000, where G is the weight of the silk thread (g), and l is the length of the silk thread (m) (2) . tex (number) [tex (H)]: tex=g/l1000, where G is the weight of yarn (or silk) (g), and l is the length of yarn (or silk) (m)
(3) . dtex: dtex=g/l9000, where G is the weight of the silk thread (g), and l is the length of the silk thread (m) Fixed weight calculation formula (1) Metric count (n): n=l/g, where G is the weight of yarn (or silk) (g) and l is the length of yarn (or silk) (m) (2) . imperial count (s): s=l/ (g840), where G is the weight of the silk thread (pounds) and l is the length of the silk thread (yards)
Select conversion formula
(1) . conversion formula of metric number (n) and denier (d) =9000/n
(2) . conversion formula of English branch (s) and denier (d) =5315/s
(3) . conversion formula between dtex and Tex: 1tex=10dtex
(4) . conversion formula of tex and D: tex=d/9
(5) . conversion formula between tex and British count (s): tex=k/s K value: pure cotton yarn k=583.1 purified fiber k=590.5 polyester cotton yarn k=587.6 cotton viscose yarn (75:25) k=584.8-dimensional cotton yarn (50:50) k=587.0
(6) . conversion formula between tex and metric number (n): tex=1000/n
(7) . conversion formula of dtex and D: dtex=10d/9
(8) . conversion formula between dtex and British count (s): dtex=10k/s K value: pure cotton yarn k=583.1 purified fiber k=590.5 polyester cotton yarn k=587.6 cotton viscose yarn (75:25) k=584.8 dimensional cotton yarn (50:50) k=587.0
(9) . conversion formula between dtex and metric unit (n): dtex=10000/n
(10) . conversion formula between metric centimeter (CM) and English inch (inch): 1inch=2.54cm
(11) . conversion formula between metric meter (m) and English code (YD): 1 code =0.9144m
(12) . conversion formula between gram weight per square meter of silk (g/m2) and meter (m/m): 1m/m=4.3056g/m2
(13) . conversion formula between actual weight of silk and pound weight: pound weight (LB) = silk weight per meter (g/m) *0.9144 (m/yd) *50 (YD) /453.6 (g/yd)
Abbreviations for fabrics
RH：Rabbit hair 兔毛
Ts：Tussah silk 柞蚕丝
YH：Yark hair 牦牛毛
CH：Camel hair 驼毛
CVC：chief value of cotton涤棉倒比（涤含量低于60％以下）
Ms：Mulberry silk 桑蚕丝
Fiber name abbreviation code
Natural fiber s
Rayon viscose fiber R
Acetate fiber CA
Triacetate fiber CTA
Copper ammonia fiber CVP
Rich and strong fiber polynosic
Protein fiber prot
Synthetic fiber carbon fiber CF
Polyphenylene sulfide fiber PPS
Polyacetal fiber POM
Phenolic fiber PHE
Elastic fiber pea
Polyether ketone fiber peek
Preoxidized acrylic PANOF
Modified acrylic fiber mac
Polyvinyl acetal fiber PVB
Boron fiber ef
Chlorine fiber Cl
High pressure cationic dyeable polyester CDP
Atmospheric boiling cationic dyeable fiber ECDP
Polypropylene terephthalate fiber PTT
Polybutylene terephthalate fiber PBT
Polyethylene naphthalate fiber pen
Polyethylene and polypropylene blend fiber es
Poly (p-dioxane cyclohexanone) fiber PDS
Elastic diene fiber ed
Homologous aromatic polyamide fiber ppt
Para aromatic polyamide fiber PPTA
Polyimide fiber pi
Ultra high strength and high modulus polyethylene fiber chmw-pe
Other metal fiber MTF
Glass fiber Ge
Fabric classification and test methods
Fiber > yarn > fabric
Non woven fabric
- Hand feeling and visual measurement:
This method is applicable to textile raw materials in the form of loose fibers.
(1) Cotton fiber is shorter and thinner than ramie fiber and other ramie fibers, and often has various impurities and defects.
(2) The hemp fiber feels rough and hard.
(3) Wool fiber is curly and elastic.
(4) Silk is long and fine, with special luster.
(5) Among the chemical fibers, only viscose fibers have great difference in dry and wet strength.
(6) Spandex has great elasticity, and its length can be stretched to more than five times at room temperature.
- Microscopic observation:
The fiber is identified according to the longitudinal and cross-sectional morphological characteristics of the fiber.
(1) . cotton fiber: cross section shape: round waist with middle waist; Longitudinal shape: flat and banded, with natural twists.
(2) , ramie (ramie, flax, jute) fiber: cross section shape: waist round or polygonal, with middle cavity; Longitudinal shape: there are horizontal sections and vertical lines.
(3) . wool fiber: cross section shape: round or approximately round, some with pith; Longitudinal shape: there are scales on the surface.
(4) . rabbit hair fiber: cross section shape: dumbbell type, with hair pulp; Longitudinal shape: there are scales on the surface.
(5) . mulberry silk fiber: cross section shape: irregular triangle; Longitudinal shape: smooth and straight, with longitudinal stripes.
(6) . common viscose fiber: cross section shape: sawtooth, skin core structure; Longitudinal shape: longitudinal groove.
(7) . rich and strong fiber: cross section shape: less tooth shape, or round, oval; Longitudinal shape: smooth surface.
(8) . acetate fiber: cross section shape: trilobal or irregular sawtooth; Longitudinal shape: there are longitudinal stripes on the surface.
(9) . acrylic fiber: cross section shape: round, dumbbell or leaf; Longitudinal shape: smooth or striped surface.
(10) . nylon fiber: cross section shape: close to circular; Longitudinal shape: smooth surface.
(11) Spandex fiber: cross section shape: irregular shape, round, potato shaped; Longitudinal shape: the surface is dark, showing unclear bone shaped stripes.
(12) , polyester, nylon, polypropylene fiber: cross section shape: round or irregular; Profile shape: smooth.
(13) . vinylon fiber: cross section shape: waist round, skin core structure; Longitudinal shape: 1~2 grooves.
- Density gradient method:
It is based on the characteristics of various fibers with different densities to identify fibers.
(1) The xylene carbon tetrachloride system is generally used to prepare the density gradient solution.
(2) The precision ball method is commonly used to calibrate the density gradient tube.
(3) Measurement and calculation: the fiber to be measured is pretreated with deoiling, drying and defoaming, made into small balls and put into balance, and the fiber density is measured according to the fiber suspension position.
- Fluorescence method:
Using ultraviolet fluorescent lamp to irradiate the fiber, the fiber can be identified according to the different luminescent properties and the different fluorescent color of the fiber.
Specific display of fluorescent color of various fibers:
(1) , cotton, wool fiber: light yellow
(2) Mercerized cotton fiber: light red
(3) . jute fiber: purple brown
(4) , jute, silk, nylon fiber: light blue
(5) Viscose fiber: white purple shadow
(6) Bright viscose fiber: light yellow and purple shadow
(7) . polyester fiber: white light, blue sky, very bright
(8) . vinylon shiny fiber: light yellow and purple shadow.
- Combustion method:
According to the different chemical composition of the fibers, the combustion characteristics are also different, so the fibers can be roughly classified. The comparison of combustion characteristics of several common fibers is as follows:
(1) , cotton, hemp, viscose fiber, copper ammonia fiber: close to the flame: non shrinking and non melting; Contact with flame: rapid combustion; Leave the flame: continue to burn; Smell: smell of burning paper; Residue characteristics: a small amount of gray black or gray white ash.
(2) , silk and wool fiber: close to flame: curl and melt; Contact flame: curl, melt and burn; Leave the flame: burn slowly and sometimes extinguish by itself; Smell: the smell of burning hair; Residue characteristics: loose and brittle black particles or coke.
(3) . polyester fiber: close to flame: melting and shrinking; Contact flame: melting, smoking, slow combustion; Leave the flame: continue to burn, sometimes extinguish by itself; Odor: special aromatic sweet taste; Residue characteristics: hard black round beads.
(4) . nylon fiber: close to flame: melting and shrinking; Contact flame: melting and smoking; Leaving the flame: self extinguishing; Odor: amino odor; Residue characteristics: hard light brown transparent round beads.
(5) . acrylic fiber: close to flame: melting and shrinking; Contact flame: melting and smoking; Leave the flame: continue to burn, emitting black smoke; Smell: spicy; Residue characteristics: Black irregular beads, fragile.
(6) Polypropylene fiber: close to flame: melting and shrinking; Contact flame: melting and burning; Leave the flame: continue to burn; Odor: paraffin smell; Residue characteristics: gray white hard transparent round beads.
(7) . spandex fiber: close to flame: melting and shrinking; Contact flame: melting and burning; Leaving the flame: self extinguishing; Odor: special flavor; Residue characteristics: white colloidal.
(8) . nylon fiber: close to flame: melting and shrinking; Contact flame: melting, burning, emitting black smoke; Leaving the flame: self extinguishing; Odor: pungent odor; Residue characteristics: dark brown hard block.
(9) . vinylon fiber: close to flame: melting and shrinking; Contact flame: melting and burning; Leave the flame: continue to burn, emitting black smoke; Odor: unique fragrance; Residue characteristics: irregular Brown hard lump.
Common fabric concepts
- Warp direction, warp yarn, warp yarn density – fabric length direction; This yarn is called warp; The arrangement number of yarns within 1 inch is warp density (warp density);
- Weft direction, weft yarn, weft yarn density – width direction of fabric; The yarn in this direction is called weft, and the number of yarns arranged within 1 inch is weft density (weft density);
- Density refers to the number of yarns per unit length of woven fabric, which is generally the number of yarns within 1 inch or 10 cm. China’s national standard stipulates that the number of yarns within 10 cm is used to express the density, but textile enterprises are still used to using the number of yarns within 1 inch to express the density. As commonly seen, “45×45/108×58” indicates that there are 45 warp and weft yarns respectively, and the warp and weft density is 108 and 58.
- Width – the effective width of fabrics, usually expressed in inches or centimeters. The common ones are 36 inches, 44 inches, 56-60 inches, etc., which are called narrow, medium and wide respectively. Fabrics higher than 60 inches are extra wide, usually called wide cloth. Today, the width of extra wide fabrics in China can reach 360 cm. The width is usually marked after the density. For example, if the width is added to the fabric mentioned in: 3, it means: “45×45/108×58/60”, that is, the width is 60 inches.
- Gram weight – the gram weight of fabric is generally the gram of fabric weight per square meter. Gram weight is an important technical index of knitted fabric, and the gram weight of woolen cloth is also usually regarded as an important technical index. The gram weight of denim fabric is generally expressed in ounces (oz), that is, the ounces of fabric weight per square yard, such as 7 ounces, 12 ounces of denim, etc;
- Yarn dyed fabric – in Japan, it is called “dyeing fabric first”, which refers to the process of dyeing yarn or filament, and then weaving with colored yarn. This kind of fabric is called “yarn dyed fabric”, and the factories producing yarn dyed fabrics are generally called dyeing mills, such as denim, and most shirt fabrics are yarn dyed fabrics.
Classification according to different processing methods
- woven fabric:
It is a fabric made of yarns vertically arranged, i.e. horizontally and vertically, interwoven on the loom according to certain rules. There are denim, brocade, Bansi cloth, hemp yarn, etc.
- knitted fabrics:
The fabric formed by knitting yarn into loops is divided into weft knitting and warp knitting.
a. Weft knitted fabric is formed by feeding the weft into the working needle of the knitting machine from the weft direction, so that the yarn can be bent into circles in sequence and threaded into each other.
b. Warp knitted fabric is made of a group or several groups of yarn arranged in parallel, which are fed into all the working needles of the knitting machine in the warp direction and are formed into circles at the same time.
The loose fibers are bonded or sewn together. At present, two methods are mainly used: bonding and puncture. This processing method can greatly simplify the technological process, reduce the cost, improve the labor productivity, and has broad prospects for development.
Classification by yarn raw materials constituting the fabric
- pure Textile:
The same fiber is used as the raw material of the fabric, including cotton fabric, wool fabric, silk fabric, polyester fabric, etc.
- blended fabric:
The raw materials of the fabric are made of two or more different kinds of fibers, which are blended into yarn, including polyester viscose, polyester nitrile, polyester cotton and other blended fabrics.
- blended fabric:
The raw material of the fabric is made of single yarn of two kinds of fibers, which is combined into strands, including low elastic polyester filament and medium long blended yarn, and polyester staple fiber and low elastic polyester filament blended into strands, etc.
- interwoven fabric:
The raw materials of the two directional systems of the fabric are different fiber yarns, such as antique satin interwoven with silk and rayon, nifu spinning interwoven with nylon and rayon, etc.
Classification according to whether the fabric raw materials are dyed or not
- white fabric: the raw material without bleaching and dyeing is processed into fabric, which is also called raw fabric in silk weaving.
- colored fabric: it is a fabric made of bleached and dyed raw materials or fancy threads. Silk fabric is also called cooked fabric.
Classification of other fabrics
- adhesive cloth:
It is formed by bonding two pieces of cloth back to back. Bonded fabrics, organic fabrics, knitted fabrics, nonwovens, vinyl plastic films, etc., can also be combined in different ways.
- flocking processing cloth:
The cloth is covered with short and dense fiber fluff, which has a velvet style and can be used as clothing and decorative materials.
- foam laminated fabric:
Foamed plastics are adhered to woven or knitted fabrics as base cloth, which are mostly used as cold proof clothing materials.
- coated fabric:
The base cloth of woven or knitted fabrics is coated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and neoprene, which has superior waterproof function