Textile trade includes international trade and domestic trade. With the further improvement of China’s market economy, it has become the consensus of people in the industry to learn from and abide by the general principles of international trade in domestic trade. In the international trade of textiles, each transaction is settled according to the “order”. A business or a transaction is a deal. A series of documents will be formed around a textile transaction. Therefore, in China, people are used to calling textile trade and processing “making orders”, signing contracts “placing orders”, renewing contracts “turning orders”, and the control process of trade and processing “documentary”. Furthermore, the personnel who control the processing process are called “merchandisers”, the personnel who control the processing quality and process of the textile factory are called textile merchandisers, and the personnel who control the processing quality and process of the printing and dyeing factory are called dyeing and finishing merchandisers. Different from the textile merchandiser, the main work of the dyeing and finishing merchandiser is completed in the dyeing factory. The main work of dyeing and finishing merchandisers includes two aspects: information exchange and delivery date control.
The control process of textile dyeing and finishing is actually a process of information exchange, and the information exchange is two-way. On the one hand, the trading company must fully inform the dyeing factory of all the requirements on textile dyeing and finishing processing through the merchandiser, as the basis for the dyeing factory to control the product processing quality. On the other hand, in the process of textile dyeing and finishing, there will always be one or another problem, such as color difference, hand feeling, package length, etc. the merchandiser needs to report to the trading company in time in order to get new instructions from the company and appropriately adjust the control focus of textile products in subsequent processing.
It is not difficult to see that the textile dyeing and finishing merchandising process is a process of two-way information exchange. In this process, the ability of the merchandiser to handle the information that he has mastered can fully reflect the basic business ability and comprehensive quality of the merchandiser. Through continuous learning and practice, the merchandiser’s professional ability and comprehensive quality can be gradually improved, which is the main purpose of this course. In the learning process, making full use of professional knowledge can improve learning efficiency. For those who do not graduate from dyeing and finishing technology, as long as they think carefully and practice hard in the learning process, they can also receive good learning results.
Delivery date control
In the process of dying and finishing foreign trade textiles, delivery time control is sometimes more important than quality control. In fact, the delivery date is the solemn commitment of the textile processing party on the delivery date. The delay of the delivery date is actually a serious form of breach of contract. The solemn commitment made to the customer has been changed, which is the concrete manifestation of breaking promises. At present, many domestic suppliers still have the understanding that delaying the delivery date in order to fully ensure the product quality is a performance of being responsible to customers. In fact, this idea is obviously one-sided. Since the foreign trade company has signed a contract with foreign customers, all the terms in the contract must be observed by both parties. The delay of the delivery date may cause the customers of foreign trade companies to fail to meet their next family’s requirements on delivery date. The resulting vicious circle can only lead to a series of adverse consequences, such as air transportation or payment of liquidated damages. Domestic trading companies wanted to make a relatively meager profit by making a list, but due to the poor control of delivery date, it may lead to huge compensation. In short, whether it is domestic trade or international trade, strictly ensuring the delivery time is the premise to continuously expand the business processing volume.
Dyeing and finishing merchandising process
The basic process of dyeing and finishing merchandiser is determined by the work content of dyeing and finishing merchandiser in the dyeing factory. The main work contents of the merchandiser include ten aspects: selection of salesman, grey cloth warehousing, spot color, and cylinder arrangement, color control, meter control, hand feeling control, thickness control, inspection and packaging control, finished product delivery, and internal quality control of products. The control of the above links is basically arranged according to the process of textile dyeing and finishing the documentary. While controlling the above ten problems, the merchandiser is also responsible for making necessary contacts with the production department, technical department, logistics service department, and other departments of the dyeing plant.
Bad cloth warehousing
Plan the quantity of grey cloth according to the order quantity. After the grey cloth is transported to the dyeing plant, it shall be put into the warehouse in time. When entering the warehouse, count the pieces, check the grey cloth code sheet, distinguish the batch number, count the total meters, and ask the warehouse keeper of the dyeing factory for the grey cloth warehousing sheet. These are the responsibilities of the dyeing and finishing merchandiser. After the grey cloth is put into storage, the dyeing and finishing merchandiser must check it five times.
① Check the stacking height of a grey cloth
The stacking height of the grey cloth is too high. If the stacking time is too long, the bottom grey cloth will be compressed and deformed, which is easy to cause difficulty in unwinding grey cloth and form internal stress of fabric, affecting fabric pretreatment.
② Check the effect of rain and sun protection in the warehouse
If the effect of rain and sun protection in the warehouse is not good, it is easy to rain or expose the fabric to the sun, resulting in moldy grey cloth or broken spandex, making the fabric unable to carry out normal dyeing and finishing processing.
③ Check the ground paving at the grey cloth stacking place
If the grey cloth is directly stacked on the ground, it is easy to be damp or bitten by rats. Although some chemical fiber products are not afraid of moisture, they are contaminated with too many mud marks, which is easy to effects the cleanliness of light-colored fabrics.
④ Check whether the same or similar grey cloth is stacked around the grey cloth stacking place
If the same or similar grey cloth is stacked, it is easy to mix batches due to the collapse of the cloth stack, and it is easy to take the wrong grey cloth when preparing the cylinder.
⑤ Check the grey cloth stacking identification
Use a small blackboard, write chalk on the grey cloth, or other methods to make obvious marks for different customers or grey cloth of different batch numbers to show differences and avoid confusion.
Dot color cylinder
The production management department shall arrange the production plan according to the grey cloth warehousing order, put forward clear quality requirements, and clearly inform the production management department of the dyeing factory of the processing quantity of each color. This process is called color spots. The personnel on the duty of the production management department arrange the production plan according to the color characteristics of the customer’s samples and the equipment characteristics of the dyeing plant. This process is called cylinder discharge. Spot color cylinder arrangement is the beginning of textile dyeing and finishing. A good start is essential for the normal processing of a single textile. The production plan can be fully arranged, but the time of the first cylinder fabric out of the cylinder must be mastered. Timely mastering the color accuracy, dyeing quality, and cloth weaving quality of the first cylinder product is very important to control the product quality of this single. Finding major problems and reporting them to foreign trade companies in time is the premise to ensure product quality. In case of major quality problems, concealment or hesitation will bring endless trouble. Major quality problems mainly include serious disqualification of grey cloth quality and dyeing quality.
Confirm the color accuracy of the small sample dyeing of the technical department, inspect the color accuracy of the production workshop, confirm the color difference and unqualified products, put forward repair suggestions, and inspect the color of the repaired products. These are the main tasks of the color control of the dyeing and finishing merchandiser. The key to color control is to check the color difference of head and tail, left, middle and right, tube, match, and cylinder. The accuracy of proofing color in the laboratory, the accuracy of color control in the dyeing workshop, and the accuracy of color control in the sizing workshop constitute the main contents of the color control process of the merchandiser. Controlling the color difference within the range of meeting customer requirements is the core problem of color control.
Check the warehousing quantity of finished products of each color and supplement the insufficient part in time. For colors with little difference in meters, the dyeing and finishing merchandiser must timely ask the superior supervisor to determine the supplementary quantity of colors according to the superior’s handling opinions. The temporary additional quantity proposed by the customer shall be reported to the competent production department in time, and strive to get the help of the competent production department. Understanding the warp shrinkage of fabric is the premise of arranging the dyeing quantity.
Handle and elasticity control
According to the hand samples confirmed by customers, communicate with the technical director of the dyeing plant, ask him for advice and confirm the main processes and main parameters affecting the hand feeling, leave enough hand samples in the technical department, and regularly inspect or spot check the hand feeling of products processed by each process. The control of fabric feel is complex, soft and stiff, drape and elegant, light and heavy are relative to the fabric samples. The elasticity of fabric includes two aspects. One is the elasticity generated by elastic fibers, which can be measured by data. On the other hand, it refers to the resilience of nonelastic fabrics, which usually refers to the ability of the fabric to return to its original state after the external force disappears when testing the feel of the fabric.
Thickness and door width control
Strictly speaking, controlling the fiber quality per unit area of textiles, that is, the “gram weight” of fabrics often said in dyeing factories, is the thickness control of fabrics. The control of fabric thickness is closely related to the control of fabric feel. In the process of controlling fabric thickness and feel, it is often associated with controlling fabric door width, shrinkage, elasticity, and flatness. Elasticity and handle control and thickness and door width control are actually the main contents of quality control in the finishing process. After the textile color control, the control of fabric elasticity, hand feel, door width, and thickness is of great significance to effectively control the product quality.
Inspection and packaging control
Defective product control is completed through fabric appearance defect inspection. The main content of defective product control is to inspect all defective dyeing and finishing products and weaving products, supplement the quantity in time, or arrange rework and repair. The defective product control is completed through inspection, and the finished product quantity control is completed at the same time. One of the main contents of inspection control is to clearly inform the dyeing factory of the customer’s inspection standards, implement them in the inspection process, and timely communication with the dyeing factory and foreign trade company about the problems in the inspection process. The color, door width, hand feel, thickness, weft deviation, dyeing and finishing defects and weaving defects included in the inspection content can be completed by manual judgment. The merchandiser must actively provide the internal quality inspection samples for the third party, accept and assist the third party inspection, and feedback the inspection contents to the dyeing factory and trading company in time. One of the main tasks of the merchandiser is to select the ship sample required by the customer before packaging. The main contents of packaging control are to determine packaging materials and packaging methods, confirm various packaging shipping marks and marks, confirm packaging length and overall dimensions, and confirm code list and total volume of goods. Timely delivery of relevant packaging information to trading companies is very important for trading companies or shipping agents to book cabins or contact containers. It is one of the duties of the merchandiser to explain the company address and indicate the road for the container truck driver. Supervising the packing process and counting the packing quantity is also a task that the merchandiser must complete.
Choosing a salesman who is willing to provide high-quality services to the trading company in the business department of the dyeing factory is the first thing for the merchandiser to confirm the textile processing of the dyeing factory. The salesman can understand the basic situation of the dyeing factory. The merchandiser can put forward reasonable requirements to the relevant departments in the dyeing factory through the salesman. The salesman can assist the merchandiser in handling various bills and provide relevant information for the merchandiser. If the merchandiser cannot select the salesman of the dyeing factory in time, he can also accept the salesman recommended by the business supervisor of the dyeing factory. In short, choosing a good salesman can greatly improve work efficiency.
Finished product delivery
When finished products are delivered, the merchandiser needs to explain the color and pieces of textiles to the warehouse keeper. After accounting the total meters according to the code sheet, the warehouse keeper will issue a finished product delivery order to the merchandiser. The merchandiser shall pay the dyeing fee to the finance department according to the meters of the delivery order, and then handle the delivery of finished products with the bill of lading. Of course, the above process can also be handled through the salesman. Trading companies can also handle the formalities of finished products ex-warehouse in advance by paying the dyeing fee before the specified date through the guarantee of the salesman. Paying dyeing and finishing fees and issuing VAT invoices are the main reasons for business transactions between merchandisers and the financial department of the dyeing factory. When paying the dyeing fee, it can be cash, money order, or cheque. To ask the financial department for the opening bank and basic account number of the dyeing factory is the basic requirement for making cash checks and drafts. It is strictly prohibited to fold, scratch, and damage bills when carrying them. When asking for VAT invoices, take the initiative to provide the original or copy of the company’s business license, tax registration certificate, and other certificates according to the requirements of the financial department of the dyeing factory.
Internal quality control
Internal quality control often needs a third-party inspection to verify, mainly including colorfastness, shrinkage, strength, and ecology of textile processing. The dyeing factory can also issue the inspection report of routine items for the reference of trading companies. For the inspection of special items, especially when the customer proposes to inspect according to the requirements of ecological textiles, the foreign trade company must issue a third-party inspection report. The so-called third party is an organization independent of foreign trade companies and dyeing factories. During the processing of foreign trade products, the dyeing factory has business dealings with foreign trade companies, and foreign trade companies have business dealings with customers at home and abroad. Qualified professional testing companies are independent third parties for the above aspects. Therefore, the third-party test is more impartial and objective. The inspection report of the dyeing factory can only be used for reference by trading companies. For trading companies, especially their customers, the inspection results are not objective and fair. This requires the merchandiser to pay special attention to the process of merchandising.
At present, the number of qualified professional inspection companies is gradually increasing, and these professional inspection companies are also called inspection companies by people in the industry. These companies are not only responsible for the sample inspection of customers, but also can be entrusted by customers to directly go to the dyeing factory designated by the trading company for confirmation and entrusted inspection of their products. In the above process, the merchandiser must do a good job in reception and provide good service and support. If necessary, the merchandiser can ask the dyeing factory to provide relevant cooperation and support.