General knowledge of textile fabrics

Indication of yarn thickness:

Fixed length system
(1) Denier (d): that is, the weight of 9000 ⽶ long (g). The more ⼤ this, the thicker the yarn. “General” and “Daniel” are used to represent the thickness of chemical fiber; For example, polyester spinning: 68D * 68D means that the warp direction is 68D thick and thin polyester filament, and the weft direction is also 68D polyester filament.
(2) Tex [tex (H)]: the weight of 1000 ⽶ long yarn (g). Therefore, the larger the number is, the thicker the yarn is. This ⼀ generally indicates the thickness of staple yarn; For example, 14.5tex cotton yarn represents 40 inches of cotton yarn. The number is specified in international standards. Generally, there are more and less in the chapter of technology.
Fixed weight system:
(1) Metric ⽀ number (n): n = L / g, where G is the weight of yarn (or silk) (grams), l is the length of yarn (or silk) (metric ⽶), that is, metric ⽀ number and the length of yarn per unit weight (per metric ⽄) at given moisture regain is a multiple of thousands. (usually expressed in nm).
(2) British ⽀ number (s): S = L / (g * 840), where G is the weight of the silk thread (pounds) and l is the length of the silk thread (yards). As we often say, 20 ⽀, 30 ⽀, 40 ⽀, etc. it is obvious that the larger the number, the thinner the yarn. Generally speaking, the length of yarn per unit weight (1 pound) at given moisture regain is a multiple of 840 yards. A few 840 yards is English yarn. (often expressed as NE). The unit symbol is s.

Select conversion formula:

(1) Conversion formula of metric ⽀ number (n) and denier (d): D = 9000 / n
(2) . conversion formula between English ⽀ number (s) and denier (d): D = 5315 / S
(3) Conversion formula between metric centigrade (CM) and English inch (inch): 1inch = 2.54cm
(4) Conversion formula between metric ⽶ (m) and English code (YD): 1 code = 0.9144 ⽶
(5) The conversion formula between the gram weight of silk and satin (g / m2) and mu (M / M): 1m / M = 4.3056g/m2
(6) The thickness of the material list is ounces, that is, how many ounces per square yard. The conversion formula is 1 ounce = 28.350 grams. Converted to flat weight, it is 1 ounce / square yard = 33.9 grams / flat.

Common fabric representation methods:

(1) Density – ⽤ refers to the number of yarns per unit length of woven fabric. Generally, it is the number of yarns within 1 inch or 10 cm. According to China’s national standards, the number of yarns within 10 cm indicates the density, but textile enterprises are still used to expressing the density along with the number of yarns within 1 inch. As commonly seen, “45×45 / 108×58” indicates that the warp and weft are 45 ⽀ respectively, and the warp and weft density is 108 and 58. Warp density – ⾯ material length ⽅ direction; This yarn is called warp yarn; The number of yarns arranged in one inch is warp density (warp density); Weft density – ⾯ material width ⽅ direction; The yarn in this direction is called weft, and the number of yarns arranged in one inch is weft density (weft density);
(2). width – the effective width of the material, which is generally expressed in English or centigrade. The common ones are 43 / 44, 57 / 58, 48 / 50 English, etc. for example if the width is added to the material mentioned above, the table is: “45×45 / 108×58 / 60”, that is, the width is 60 English.
(3). gram weight – the gram weight of the material is generally the gram number of the weight of the flat material. The gram weight is an important technical index of the knitted material, and the gram weight of the woolen cloth is usually taken as an important technical index. The gram weight of the raw material is expressed as “Oz”, that is, the ounces of the weight of the raw material per square yard, such as 7 ounces, 12 ounces of denim, etc;

Classification of fibers

  1. Classification of fibers: fibers are mainly divided into chemical fibers and natural fibers (which should be used in clothing)
  2. Natural fibers are divided into cellulose fibers and egg fibers. Cellulose fibers include cotton, hemp, and other products; Egg fiber, such as silk, rabbit, camel, velvet, etc.
  3. Chemical fiber refers to those fibers made from natural or synthetic polymers through chemical addition. It can be divided into two categories: synthetic fiber and synthetic fiber. There are two kinds of synthetic fibers, namely, cellulosic fiber (such as viscose fiber, rich fiber, etc.) and egg fiber (such as ⼤⾖ fiber, flower fiber, etc.), and the camp of synthetic fiber is relatively large, including polyester fiber (i.e., polyester fiber), polyamide fiber (nylon 6, nylon 66, etc.), polyacrylonitrile fiber (acrylic fiber), polyvinyl formal fiber (nylon), polypropylene fiber (polypropylene fiber), Polychloroethylene fiber (chlorine fiber), polyurethane fiber (spandex).

Natural fiber

  1. Polyester
    Polyester is an important variety of synthetic fiber and the trade name of polyester fiber in China. British ⽂: terylene is the trade name, which is the British trade name of polyester fiber, polyester Is the chemical name, of polyester fiber. Dacron, commonly known as “Dacron” in China, is widely used in the manufacture of clothing materials and industrial products. Polyester has excellent setting properties. The flat, fluffy shape or pleat of polyester yarn or fabric after setting can remain unchanged after repeated washing.
    Performance
  2. Strength ⾼.
  3. Good elasticity.
  4. Heat resistance and thermal stability are the best in synthetic fiber fabrics.
  5. Good wear resistance. Wear resistance is second only to nylon with the best wear resistance, ⽐ other natural fibers, and synthetic fibers are good.
  6. Good light resistance. Light resistance is second only to acrylic fiber.
  7. Corrosion resistance. It can resist bleaching agents and oxidants.
  8. Poor dyeability, but good fastness and not easy to fade.
    Variety: the “type” of polyester includes staple fiber, stretch yarn, textured yarn, decorative filament, industrial filament, and various differentiated fibers. Polyester staple fiber: according to the requirements of adding ⼯ later: cotton type, ⽑ type, hemp type, and silk type.
    Polyester filament
  9. Primary yarn: untwisted yarn (conventional spinning) (udy), semi pre oriented yarn (medium speed spinning) (Moy), pre oriented yarn (⾼ speed spinning) (POY), ⾼ oriented yarn (super speed spinning) (Hoy)
  10. Drawing filament: drawing filament (low-speed drawing filament) (Dy), full drawing filament (spinning drawing step) (FDY), full take-up filament (spinning drawing step) (foy)
  11. Deformation wire: conventional deformation wire (TY), tensile deformation wire (DTY), empty deformation wire (ATY).
  12. Nylon
    Polyamide fiber is commonly known as nylon and its British name is polyamide. Nylon is a kind of polyamide fiber (nylon). It can be made into long fiber or staple fiber. Polyamide is mainly used in synthetic fibers. Its most prominent advantage is that its wear resistance is better than all other fibers. The wear resistance of cotton is 10 times and 20 times. Adding a little polyamide fiber to the blended fabric can improve its wear resistance; When stretching ⾄ 3-6%, the elastic recovery rate can reach 100%; It can withstand tens of thousands of bending without breaking. The strength of polyamide fiber is 1-2 times that of cotton and 4-5 times that of viscose fiber. However, the heat resistance and light resistance of polyamide fiber is poor, and the retention is also poor. The clothes made of polyamide fiber are not as crisp as polyester.
  13. Acrylic fiber
    Polyacrylonitrile fiber. Acrylic fiber is the trade name for polyacrylonitrile fiber in China. Acrylic fiber is known as “made”. It has the advantages of softness, bulkiness, easy dyeing, bright luster, light resistance, antibacterial, and no fear of moths. It can be pure spun or blended with natural fibers according to the requirements of different routes. Its textiles are widely used in clothing, decoration, industry, and other fields.
  14. Spandex
    Spandex is the abbreviation of polyurethane fiber, which is a kind of elastic fiber. Spandex, translated as “spandex”, is a kind of elastic fiber. Its scientific name is polyurethane, abbreviated as (PU). The Chinese mainland is called “spandex”. It has ⾼ degree elasticity and can be elongated 6 ~ 7 times, but it can quickly return to its initial state with the disappearance of tension. Spandex is generally not used alone but is added to the fabric in a small amount. This kind of fiber has both rubber properties and fiber properties. Most of them are in the core-spun yarn with spandex as the core yarn, which is called elastic core-spun yarn.

Man-made fiber

  1. (cotton)
    Viscose fiber refers to the fiber extracted from cellulose raw materials such as ⽊ wood and plant Ligusticum α- Cellulose, or cotton linter as raw material, is added into spinning stock solution, and then wet spinning. Among the 12 main textile fibers, the moisture content of viscose fiber best meets the physical requirements of (body ⽪ skin) and has the characteristics of smoothness, coolness, permeability, antistatic, gorgeous dyeing, and so on. The basic composition of viscose fiber is cellulose. Viscose fiber has good hygroscopicity. Under the condition of ⼀ general ⼤, the moisture regain is about 13%. After moisture absorption, it expands significantly, and the diameter increases by up to 50%. Therefore, the fabric feels hard and the shrinkage rate is. The breaking strength of ordinary viscose fiber is ⽐ cotton ⼩ and the elongation at break is ⼤ higher than that of cotton. The wet strength decreases more, about 50% of the strength, and the wet elongation increases by about 50%. Its modulus of cotton is low, it is easy to deform under load, and its elastic recovery performance is poor. Therefore, the fabric is easy to elongate and its ruler stability is poor.
  2. Tencel Fiber
    Tencel is a kind of solvent cellulose fiber. It was developed by CORDIS company in England and completed its commercial application in the 1990s. It is the most typical green fiber. In May 2004, it was consolidated by the Landing company. Its environmental protection features: the raw materials can be recycled continuously. The raw materials can be made into pulp, which can be spun by NMMO technology. The pulp is dissolved in ammonium oxide solvent and spun directly. It is completely completed under physical work. The ammonium oxide solvent is recycled to make the pulp, and the recovery rate is more than 99%. The toxic, polluting, and natural silk products can be degraded after spinning, which will not pollute the environment. Therefore, it is called “century green fiber” and has obtained the international green environmental protection certificate. Tencel has the advantages of excellent moisture absorption, smoothness, and comfort of ordinary viscose fiber, and overcomes the defects of low strength of ordinary viscose fiber, especially low wet strength. Its strength is almost similar to that of polyester.
  3. Modal fiber
    Modal is a kind of cellulose re fiber of viscose fiber with wet modulus. The raw material of the fiber is pulp made of spruce and beech, which is added to the fiber through a special spinning process. The raw materials of this product are all-natural materials, which are harmless to the body and can be naturally decomposed, which is harmless to the environment.

Difference between the six fibers

  1. Viscose (hygroscopic and easy to dye) is a kind of cellulosic fiber. Viscose is the most hygroscopic fiber among ordinary chemical fibers. It has good dyeability and is comfortable to wear. Viscose is not resistant to washing and has poor stability. ⽐ heavy ⼤ heavy fabric, alkali resistant but acid-resistant.
  2. Polyester (crisp and wrinkle-free) features good strength, impact resistance, heat resistance, corrosion resistance, moth resistance, acid and alkali resistance, good light resistance (second only to acrylic fiber), and poor moisture absorption, difficult dyeing, easy washing, and good shape retention. It has the characteristics of “washable and wearable”. Polyester fiber is the most abundant among the chemical fibers.
  3. Nylon (strong and wear-resistant) has the most advantage of being strong and wear-resistant, which is the best kind. Low density, light fabric, good elasticity, fatigue resistance, good chemical stability, alkali resistance, and acid resistance! The most disadvantage is that the light resistance is not good, the fabric will turn yellow after a long time of drying, the strength will decrease, and the moisture absorption is not good, but the acrylic fiber and polyester fiber are good.
  4. Acrylic fiber (bulky and sun resistant) the performance of acrylic fiber is very similar ⽺⽑, so it is called “synthetic ⽺⽑”. The density of acrylic fiber is small, which is smaller than wool, and the fabric has good warmth retention. Features: good light resistance and weather resistance (ranking the first), poor moisture absorption, and difficult dyeing.
  5. Spandex (elastic fiber) has the best elasticity, the worst strength, and poor moisture absorption. It has good light resistance, acid resistance, alkali resistance, and wear resistance. Path: Spandex benefits its characteristics are widely used in the textile field and medical field dominated by inner pants, casual clothes, sportswear, socks, pantyhose, bandage, etc. Spandex is an elastic fiber necessary for the pursuit of dynamic and convenient ⾼ performance ⾐ materials. Spandex ⽐ can stretch 5-7 times in its original state, so it is comfortable to wear, soft and wrinkle-free, and can always maintain the original contour.

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